Inability of the Legislative Assembly and the government to lead the country’s defense in 1792

Artisans and merchants were united in professional organizations, whose activities the state tried to control.

The social structure of the Indian population was formed gradually. It finally developed with the arrival of the Aryans in North India. Significant families became the varna of the Brahmins – priests – and the varna of the Kshatriyas – the military nobility. The varish of the Vaishyas consisted mainly of peasants and merchants, and the artisans, mercenaries, and slaves of the varna were sudras.

Varna were social institutions and differed from each other primarily in social and legal status, place in the religious system, code of morals, conduct, family ties and profession. The division of the population into varnas as a form of social stratification of the population of India was considered sacred. “At the bottom” of society were untouched. Even touching them “defiled” the representatives of the higher varnas. The untouchables performed the hardest and most unpleasant tasks, such as cleaning up garbage, peeling the skin of dead animals, and so on. The caste of the untouchables exists in India to this day.

The economy of ancient India consisted of three sectors: public, communal and private. Society existed mainly due to the work of free peasants, artisans, slaves. The sources of slavery were war, debt bondage, hereditary slavery. Hired labor was widely used for a specified period. Over time, the feudal form of dependence gained strength, when the tsarist administration transferred to the owner along with the land and the peasants, who became feudally dependent. Varna – communities of people who differed in social status, belonging to them was determined by origin.

Urban and rural communities played a significant role in Indian society. In the cities, special boards oversaw handicrafts, trade, and duty collection. In the Buddhist era, communal peasants had their own land and were free producers: they did not work for temples or nobility. Tsarist officials did not interfere in the internal affairs of communities that paid state taxes.

The main social unit of the community was the patriarchal family. Female infidelity was considered grave; a crime against religion and community: the laws obliged a woman to consider a man a deity, a girl to obey her father, and a widow to obey her sons.


Andrianenko Vira Ivanivna. History and theory of Ukrainian and foreign culture: textbook. way. / East Ukrainian National University. Vladimir Dahl. – Luhansk, 2007 .– 176c. Afonin VO, Afonin Yu. V., Zyuzina TO History and theory of culture: (plans-tasks for practical classes for students of the first courses of full-time and part-time form of education with special. “Culturology”) / Lugansk state. Pedagogical University named after Taras Shevchenko. Department of Cultural Studies and Cinematography. – Luhansk, 2002. – 66 pp. Bezvershuk Zhanna Oleksandrivna. History of culture in terms and names: Dictionary-reference book. – K.: High School, 2003 .– 400p. Bingham Jane, Chandler Fiona, Taplin Sam. World History: A Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia. – Kyiv: Dreamland, 2007 .– 416c.


French Revolution of the XVIII century. Abstract

The Great French Revolution. The overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the republic

French Revolution of the XVIII century. (1789-1799) was a consequence of the crisis of French absolutism. The causes of the revolution were deep contradictions between the third estate (merchants and industrialists, peasants, factory workers, the urban poor) and the ruling privileged classes – the nobility and the clergy. The interests and tasks of those who formed the third estate did not coincide in all respects, but they were all equally politically powerless and sought to change the existing order.

Dissatisfaction was caused by the system of civil inequality and class privileges enjoyed by the nobility and the clergy. Thus, the latter were exempt from paying basic taxes, could hold the highest positions in the administration, courts, army.

Absolutism became a brake on the development of trade and industry, agriculture: the royal government, nobility and clergy resisted any reforms that could destroy the guild system and monopoly privileges granted to “elected” companies and owners of “royal” factories, to weaken feudal dependence. …

The ideological basis, reflecting the anti-feudal aspirations of the French bourgeoisie and the masses, was the French Enlightenment. Even in the middle of the XVIII century. through the efforts of philosophers, writers, economists, and historians, a large number of works appeared against the feudal-absolutist orders. Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Diderot, d’Alembert advocated freedom and civil equality.

At the end of the XVII century. social contradictions in France were exacerbated by financial and commercial crises, crop failures and, as a consequence, the high cost of food. To find a way out of the predicament, King Louis XVI was forced to convene the States General – a meeting of representatives of the three estates, which did not meet for 175 years. The deputies of the third estate elected to the States General and representatives some from the first two estates proclaimed themselves the National Assembly, and on July 9 the National Assembly proclaimed itself the Constituent Assembly, aiming to draft a Constitution. The king’s attempt to disperse the assembly led to a popular uprising.

The storming of the Bastille prison by the Parisians on July 14, 1789, marked the beginning of a revolution that engulfed the entire country. On the ground, the people destroyed the old authorities. The National Guard became the armed forces of the revolution.

At the beginning of August 1789, the Constituent Assembly drafted a bill according to which the estates of privileges, feudal rights, and church tithes were abolished, and equality of all before the law in the payment of state taxes was proclaimed.

In August 1789, the assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Citizen and Man, which proclaimed the principles of people’s sovereignty, equality before the law, the human right to security and resistance to oppression, freedom of speech, press and conscience, “sacred and inviolable! ” private property rights.

The Constituent Assembly completed the drafting of the Constitution: a constitutional monarchy was established, the legislature belonged to the unicameral Legislative Assembly, and the executive power belonged to the monarch and the ministers he appointed. All citizens were divided into active and passive, ie those who had the right to vote (owners over the age of 25 who paid direct tax) and those who did not. The Constitution approved and legalized the social and political domination of wealthy citizens, which testified to the distinction in the third state.

In 1791, the Legislative Assembly, elected in accordance with the Constitution, began its work. The right part of the Legislative Assembly consisted of fellians – great financiers, merchants, landowners, industrialists, who were interested in preserving the monarchy and the Constitution of 1791, the left part consisted of deputies associated with the Jacobins. Soon the deputies were divided into two groups: the Girondists (the most famous deputies of this movement were elected in the Gironde department, they were represented by merchants, industrialists and new landowners) and Gora (Jacobins, who formed a bloc of the middle and petty bourgeoisie, peasantry and plebeians).

The revolution in France caused concern and hatred of the monarchs and nobility of European states. In 1792 a war broke out between Austria and Prussia, which had concluded a military alliance, and revolutionary France. The beginning of the war was unsuccessful for France: the old army was disorganized, many officers emigrated, there was a lack of weapons. Prussian troops invaded France.

The Jacobins Marat, Robespierre, and Danton became the main organizing force in the struggle for the homeland.

The inability of the Legislative Assembly and the government to lead the country’s defense in 1792 led to an uprising led by the Paris Commune, made up of Parisian Jacobin sections. Louis XVI was imprisoned, the king’s ministers were released, and a Provisional Executive Committee was set up. The division into active and passive citizens was abolished and elections to the National Convention were called on the basis of universal suffrage for men.

The National Convention, convened in 1792, passed a decree abolishing royal power. France was proclaimed a republic. The day before, on September 20, the French Revolutionary Army near the town of Valmi defeated the Prussian troops and forced them to retreat. By early 1793, the invaders had been expelled from France.

In the Convention, the Girondins fought the Jacobins. The Girondists wanted to slow down the revolution, and the Jacobins demanded its further deepening. One of the most pressing issues in these discussions was the question of the punishment of Louis XVI. The king was brought before the court of the Convention, which found him guilty of treason. The French king was executed.

During 1789-1792, the revolution in France abolished the feudal-absolutist monarchy and established a republican system in the country. The state was headed by representatives of the bourgeoisie. However, the revolution did not solve the problem of the largest part of the population – the peasantry.


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The Jacobin dictatorship in France. Abstract

The war against republican France dragged on. In 1793, Britain, Spain, Holland, and a number of Italian and German countries joined the anti-French coalition. they were supported by the Russian Empire

This war, as well as the defeats on the fronts, pushed the Jacobin-led people to expel the Girondis from the Convention.

Power passed to the Jacobins. Five foreign armies were crowded by tired, poorly armed troops. The counter-revolutionary revolt led by the monarchist nobles, which broke out in Vendée, instantly spread throughout the country.

To attract the peasantry to its side, the Jacobin Convention transferred to the peasants communal lands and lands of emigrants, abolished feudal duties.

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